Saturday, March 14, 2020

The Historic Olmec City of San Lorenzo

The Historic Olmec City of San Lorenzo The Olmec culture thrived along Mexico’s Gulf coast from roughly 1200 B.C. to 400 B.C. One of the most important archaeological sites associated with this culture is known as San Lorenzo. Once, there was a great city there. Its original name has been lost to time. Considered by some archaeologists to be the first true Mesoamerican city, San Lorenzo was a very important center of Olmec commerce, religion, and political power during its heyday. Location San Lorenzo is located in Veracruz State, about 38 miles (60km) from the Gulf of Mexico. The Olmecs could not have selected a better site to build their first great city. The site was originally a large island in the middle of the Coatzacoalcos River, although the course of the river has since changed and now only flows past one side of the site. The island featured a central ridge, high enough to escape any flooding. The floodplains along the river were very fertile. The location is close to sources of stone which were used for making sculptures and buildings. Between the river on either side and the high central ridge, the site was easily defended from enemy attack. Occupation of San Lorenzo San Lorenzo was first occupied around 1500 B.C., making it one of the oldest sites in the Americas. It was home to three early settlements, referred to as the Ojochà ­ (1500-1350 B.C.), the Bajà ­o (1350-1250 B.C.), and the Chichrras (1250-1150 B.C.). These three cultures are considered pre-Olmec and are largely identified by pottery types. The Chicharrs period begins to show characteristics later identified as Olmec. The city reached its peak in the period from 1150 to 900 B.C. before falling into decline. This is referred to as the San Lorenzo era. There may have been some 13,000 inhabitants at San Lorenzo during the height of its power (Cyphers). The city then went into decline and passed into the Nacaste period from 900 to 700 B.C. The Nacaste did not have the skills of their forebears and added little in the way of art and culture. The site was abandoned for some years before the Palangana era (600-400 B.C.). These later inhabitants contributed some small mounds and a ball cou rt. The site was then abandoned for over a thousand years before it was re-occupied during the Late Classic era of Mesoamerican civilization, but the city never regained its former glory. The Archaeological Site San Lorenzo is a sprawling site which includes not only the one-time metropolis of San Lorenzo but several smaller towns and agricultural settlements that were controlled by the city. There were important secondary settlements at Loma del Zapote, where the river forked to the south of the city, and El Remolino, where the waters re-converged to the north. The most important section of the site is on the ridge, where the nobility and priest classes lived. The western side of the ridge is known as the â€Å"royal compound,† as it was home to the ruling class. This area has yielded a treasure trove of artifacts, particularly sculptures. The ruins of an important structure, the â€Å"red palace,† are also found there. Other highlights include an aqueduct, interesting monuments scattered around the site, and several artificial pits known as â€Å"lagunas,† the purpose of which is still unclear. Stonework Very little of Olmec culture has survived to the present day. The climate of the steamy lowlands where they lived has destroyed any books, burial sites, and items of cloth or wood. The most important remnants of the Olmec culture are therefore architecture and sculpture. Fortunately for posterity, the Olmec were talented stonemasons. They were capable of transporting large sculptures and blocks of stone for masonry for distances of up to 60 kilometers (37 miles). The stones were probably floated part of the way on sturdy rafts. The aqueduct at San Lorenzo is a masterpiece of practical engineering. Hundreds of similarly-carved basalt troughs and covers weighing many tons were laid out in such a way as to promote the flow of water to its destination, which was a duck-shaped cistern designated Monument 9 by archaeologists. Sculpture The Olmec were great artists and the most remarkable feature of San Lorenzo is doubtless the several dozen sculptures that have been discovered at the site and nearby secondary sites like Loma del Zapote. The Olmec were famous for their detailed sculptures of colossal heads. Ten of these heads have been found at San Lorenzo. The largest of them is nearly ten feet tall. These massive stone heads are believed to depict rulers. At nearby Loma del Zapote, two finely sculpted, nearly identical twins face two jaguars. There are also several massive stone thrones at the site. All in all, dozens of sculptures have been found in and around San Lorenzo. Some of the statues were carved out of earlier works. Archaeologists believe that the statues were used as elements in scenes with religious or political meaning. The pieces would be laboriously moved around to create different scenes. Politics San Lorenzo was a powerful political center. As one of the first Mesoamerican cities - if not the first - it did not have true contemporary rivals and ruled over a large area. In the immediate environs, archaeologists have discovered many small settlements and dwellings, mostly located on hilltops. The smaller settlements were likely ruled by members or appointments of the royal family. Smaller sculptures have been found at these peripheral settlements, suggesting that they were sent there from San Lorenzo as a form of cultural or religious control. These smaller sites were used in the production of food and other resources and were of strategic use militarily. The royal family ruled this mini-empire from the heights of San Lorenzo. Decline and Importance In spite of its promising start, San Lorenzo fell into steep decline and by 900 B. C. was a shadow of its former self. The city would be abandoned a few generations later. Archaeologists do not really know why San Lorenzos glory faded so soon after its classic era. There are a few clues, however. Many of the later sculptures were carved out of earlier ones, and some are only half-completed. This suggests that perhaps rival cities or tribes came to control the countryside, making the acquisition of new stone difficult. Another possible explanation is that if the population somehow declined, there would be insufficient manpower to quarry and transport new material. The era around 900 B.C. is also historically linked to some climatic changes, which could well have adversely affected San Lorenzo. As a relatively primitive, developing culture, the people of San Lorenzo subsisted on a handful of core crops, hunting, and fishing. A sudden change in climate could affect these crops, as well as the nearby wildlife. San Lorenzo, while not a spectacular place for visitors like Chichà ©n Itz or Palenque, is nevertheless an extremely important historical city and archaeological site. The Olmec is the parent culture of all of those which came later in Mesoamerica, including the Maya and Aztecs. As such, any insight gained from the earliest major city is of inestimable cultural and historical value. It is unfortunate that the city has been raided by looters and many priceless artifacts have been lost or rendered valueless by being removed from their place of origin. It is possible to visit the historical site, although many of the sculptures are currently found elsewhere, such as the Mexican National Museum of Anthropology and the Xalapa Anthropology Museum. Sources Coe, Michael D. Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs. Ancient Peoples and Places, Rex Koontz, 7th Edition, Thames Hudson, June 14, 2013. Cyphers, Ann. San Lorenzo, Veracruz. Arqueologà ­a Mexicana, No. 87, 2019. Diehl, Richard. The Olmecs: Americas First Civilization. Ancient Peoples Places, Hardcover, Thames Hudson, December 31, 2004.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Thinking in regards to a Child, Types of Language and Persuasion Essay

Thinking in regards to a Child, Types of Language and Persuasion - Essay Example Children can also enjoy this site for free but, their chance to maximize their fun is quiet limited so they need to sign up, but of course it has to be with a payment. The third site is for children who find fun in reading comics and books about their favorite cartoon and comic characters. They can also read for free, but like with the previous mentioned sites, they need to subscribe in order to ensure good read about comics and books of various choices. These sites have one thing in common; they certainly attract kids who have the affinity for cartoon characters and magical fantasies (, 2008;, 2010;, 2011). This is the very vital persuasion that these sites used in order to entice children and catch up their attention. Children can play or read for free, but in the long run this eventually convinces them to ask for more and the only way to address their cravings is to sign up or subscribe with payment. The languages used are ver y familiar to children. For instance, various languages are stored in these sites which include but not limited to characters in action such as X-men, Batman, Hulk, Spiderman, Scooby-Doo, Looney Tunes, Lucky Charms and more. These are words that common and familiar among children who have the attraction for cartoon hero characters or renowned cartoon shows that eventually children followed in various TV programs, movies and other media. Other languages used include advertising icons that once a child clicks on it, it will redirect to actual game or subscription process. Privacy statement I do not think children would be attracted to privacy statement. What matters to them is to have fun and pursue excitement the way these sites are promoted rather than to understand a privacy statement except if their guardians or parents require them to do so. In the above mentioned sites there are no remarkable attractive icons for their privacy statement although all of them have placed it somewh ere below the webpage. This is vital information among guardians or parents in order to ensure the site their children are using adheres to various regulatory board requirements. Worrisome or offensive to parents Perhaps the offensive part of these sites could be found in the actual game or use of the featured products. These may include violent moves of the characters and so on. However, the worrisome part among parents would be in line with the purchasing of these products which particularly would include bank accounts, credit cards and other disclosure of essential and confidential information. Some children can do this among themselves even without their parents’ supervision. This may lead to susceptibility to hacking and disclosure of essential information to unreliable sources. Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act is giving notice governing its collection and use of information in its site. on the other hand emphasizes its sta ndards met by â€Å"Children's Advertising Review Unit's Kid's Privacy Safe Harbor Program†. However, the only informs parents that its site is fun and safe for kids. These sites at some point or another may have informed parents about the level of online safety of the children. However, based on their privacy statement, it turns out that they have the prerogative to accept information and disclose it to other parties such

Monday, February 10, 2020

Obama and Romney 2012 campaigns Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Obama and Romney 2012 campaigns - Assignment Example The poster ad might not be very effective, since it is specifically targeted at the middle class, while negating all the other American economic classes. The image portrays President Obama smiling. The campaign poster has rows of texts that are inscribed atop of the image of President Obama, carrying different messages. The text on the first row states that because of Barack Obama, the combat mission in Iraq ended. The other texts states that it is because of Barack Obama that ‘Don’t Ask Don’t Tell’ is now history. There are also other texts stating that because of Barack Obama, there is a first Latina is in Supreme Court, while 32 million people will benefit from healthcare. The producer of this campaign poster targeted to deliver a message on the achievements that President Obama had made during his first term in office, and thus lure the voters into voting him once again back to office. The poster Ad is effective since it highlights some of the achievements that cannot be associated with any other USA president who served before, such as nominating the first Latina to the Supreme Court. The image is that of a Mitt Romney campaign Ad that does not carry his image, but only texts that are inscribed on a black-poster background. The texts on the poster are to the effect that there are still over 20 million young people in America who are still living with their parents. The other texts state that it’s the voters’ choice to move in with the parents or to take up one of 12 million new job opportunities. The producer of this poster Ad is specifically ridiculing the first term presidency of President Obama. The intent of the producer of the poster Ad is to show that President Obama is incapable of creating job opportunities for the young Americans. Thus, the Ad gives the young people a choice in Mitt Romney as the

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Paper on Drugs Essay Example for Free

Paper on Drugs Essay Drugs are chemical substances that alter behaviour, mood, perception, or mental functioning. The general perception by most people is that a drug is a bad substance and should not be used. This is true; but drugs are still used by millions of people. Many governments use millions of money in countering the growth, processing and distribution of drugs. However this seems to be a losing battle. For us to be able to control how drugs are used in society the best thing is to legalize drugs and by doing this we shall eliminate dangers arising from use of drugs and drugs trade, hence making our society much better than better than it is today. Many people argue that drugs bring about insecurity and slowing down development in society since the youth are hooked to drug’s use and marketing which is an easy way to make money. Hence they end up not going to school. This is true; the reason behind this is because drug dealing in a society where drugs are criminalised is an easy way to make a lot of money since people are paid to do it since its risky. Hence young people among the poor find selling drugs an easy way to earn their living and escape the more demanding path of working in an honest job. This causes a bad effect on the societies in poor neighbourhoods, who turn to drug dealing instead of advancing their rank in the honest world. Making drugs legal will kill this easy way out, and force the young people of the poor to struggle and gain education so as to have an honest living and gradually advance their personal and collective financial status. Legalization of drugs would mean that they will be taxed like other commodities in the market hence they would contribute to economy development. Tax collected would contribute in society development instead of only profiting only a few people in our society. The state of Georgia in the United States of America has the highest tax on liquor than any state. It has the lowest tax on gasoline, which is good especially now that gas and fuel prices are at the highest price worldwide. If drugs were legal, government would exercise this excise tax on drugs. More to this they would save on money used in prohibition. This would make more money to help us sort the problems in our country, even settle our national depts. Since drugs are illegal, they are being marketed by outlaws, who charge an inflated price for them. Much more inflated that the amount it requires to grow, manufacture and distribute them. As a result, there are increased cartels involved in drugs marketing and distribution. Eventually the end user has to commit crimes such a theft and robbery so as to get enough money to satisfy his needs, which is buying drugs at very highly inflated prices. there is a growing black market for the distribution of drugs and drug users eventually need to commit crimes like theft and robbery to support their habits. According to Thorton, M â€Å"The average crime rate in the U.S increased twice due to the prohibition on Alcohol. Once the prohibition was lifted, it decreased back to its original state.† Hence it’s expected that drug legalisation will cause a similar decrease in crimes. Parents say that if drugs are legalized, there will be more use of drugs by the youth especially in schools than before. I beg to differ and would like them to know that the motive behind Legalizing recreational drugs is not making drugs accessible to all people. The drugs that are legal today such as alcohol and tobacco aren’t available to just everyone; they are regulated. Only a certain group of people are allowed to buy and consume them. Drugs today are sold anywhere including schools since the drug trade is unregulated. By legalizing drugs trade organisations will be made and they will come up with regulations which will stop selling of drugs to underage persons in society hence drugs distribution and selling will be controlled. This is the best way out since, when do you hear of people in schools selling beer or cigarettes? In conclusion, the prohibition of recreational drugs is not necessary. The war on drugs is lost, and that is agreed on by people (William F. Buckley, editor of â€Å"The National Review) .The money saved and made could be used and be used in crucial sectors of our economy and even help in improving our society, such as settling the internally displaced people and settling our national depts. The crime rate will drop drastically and drug cartels will be devastated. Overcrowding in Prisons will decrease hence the government won’t have to release guilty people and drugs will be less accessible to underage persons. All these will lead to a better society: security, sound economy, good environment for living and children growth hence a better meaning to life. Bibliography anomymous. ( 2005, January 13 ). Retrieved march 18, 2012, from bbc news: Blodget, H. (2010, October 6). Retrieved March 18, 2012, from The business insider: Buckley, W. F. (2010, MAY 13). Retrieved MARCH 8, 2012 Cable, S. ( 2010 , July 7 ). Retrieved march 17, 2012, from dailymail: micklethwait, B. (1994). why drugs should be legalised. why drugs should be legalised. London: Libertarian Alliance. Thorton, M. (1991, july 17). Retrieved march 18, 2012, from druglibrary:

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Facts about Abortion Essay -- essays research papers

GCSE English: non fiction writing. Choose either a topic or a person as the basis for your writing. If a topic, research all aspects of the issue and then write about it in your own words. Include your own views, with reasons. If a person, give reasons for your choice and say why you think he or she is important. Minimum of 600 words. My project is about Abortion: I have chosen to do it about abortion because I think it is a very serious topic and it is a subject that I feel very strongly about. There are a lot of arguments for and against abortion. In this project I will write about the basic facts and what women/girls should do if they are ever in that sort of situation. Abortion is a deliberate end of a pregnancy, so that it does not result in the birth of a child†¦. An abortion is when a pregnancy is ended before a baby is capable of surviving on its own outside the mother’s body. An abortion can either happen naturally i.e a miscarriage or it can be induced, done deliberately. An induced abortion is only legal if it is carried out within the law and in the circumstances which the law permits. You should NEVER attempt to induce an abortion yourself as this could cause you serious injury. In England, Wales and Scotland abortion is legal under 24 weeks of pregnancy if two doctors agree that it is majorly necessary for one of the following reasons:  · If having the baby would harm the mother’s mental or physical health more than having an abortion. This has to involve the mother explaining how she feels about the pregnancy to a doctor.  · If having the baby will harm the mental or physical health of the children she already has.  · If it is necessary to save the women’s life or prevent serious harm to her.  · I... ...they cannot be treated properly, there is only one way to help them get through it which is by counselling but many women find it very difficult and it takes them 10 years, maybe just to get back to their normal lifestyle and routines. Conclusion: By researching on abortion I have realised that abortion does have negative and positive things about it. Abortion does solve many problems but it can also create huge problems. Some people do not accept it and find it unacceptable as it is virtually killing an innocent human being, however it has helped many women and young adults in continuing their lives in a peaceful manor and it has also saved many children from being unwanted and being brought up with the proper love and affection they need. In conclusion I think that abortion is neither right nor wrong, it depends on the situation it is involved in.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Light Bulbs Research Argument

Research Argument Essay In today’s world, people are more concerned about saving the environment than they have been in the past, and the choices that they make today about the light bulbs in their homes can play an important role in the future of the environment. Light bulbs are an every day object in homes across the World today and range from the less energy efficient incandescent light bulbs (normal light bulbs), the more energy efficient compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs, and the most energy efficient light emitting diode (LED) bulbs. In order to help save the environment people need to make the change to energy efficient lighting, which will also help them save money, and even though they need to be recycled, the process is easy. With all the talk about being â€Å"green†, as stated by Carolyn Milton, â€Å"for the new year I'm going to be more green conscientious,† making the simple change of a light bulb could be a good solution. Most American’s always talk about trying to save the environment and reduce emissions so they spend thousands of dollars to buy electric and hybrid cars, when if they would simply change out their outdated light bulbs they could make an even greater impact on reducing greenhouse-gases. As stated by Caplan, â€Å"Electric lighting currently accounts for 19% of the world’s electricity use, pumping as much greenhouse-gas pollution into the atmosphere ever year as half the world’s cars. In the debate about the deteriorating environment, power plants have always been referred to as a source of the world’s issues, but by making the switch to energy efficient light bulbs people can help reduce the amount of power plants, â€Å"Replacing a single incandescent bulb with a CFL will keep a half-ton of CO2 out of the atmosphere over the life of the bulb. If everyone in the U. S. used energy-efficient lighting, we could retire 90 average size power plants. Saving ele ctricity reduces CO2 emissions, sulfur oxide and high-level nuclear waste† (Energy Efficient Lighting). Energy efficient light bulbs save money by not only helping the environment but they can also leave more money in people’s wallets in the tough times of today. â€Å"An ENERGY STAR qualified compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL) will save about $30 over its lifetime and pay for itself in about 6 months† (Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs for Consumers). People like to save energy, not only for the environment, but also because it can help save them money in the long run, â€Å"I would try any one that would use less energy,† Lacy Broughton. If a person switches to energy efficient light bulbs they will notice the difference in the price of their electricity bill because energy efficient light bulbs use less watts, â€Å"A single 18 watt CFL used in place of a 75 watt incandescent will save about 570 kWh over its lifetime. At 8 cents per kWh, that equates to a $45 savings† (Energy Efficient Lighting). By using energy efficient light bulbs you can also save money by not having to be inconvenienced in constantly having to change out and buy new light bulbs all the time, â€Å"Compact fluorescent bulbs have a higher lifespan as compared to incandescent light bulbs. They have a lifespan which ranges from 6,000 to 15,000 hours. This presents a definite contrast to the 750 hours to 1,000 hours that make up the life span of an incandescent bulb† (Dahne). The most common energy efficient light bulbs are the CFLs, which contain mercury and have to be recycled and disposed of properly when no longer in use. Some people avoid making the switch to energy efficient light bulbs because of the dangers that could come with mercury, but in reality, â€Å"A power plant will emit 10mg of mercury to produce the electricity to run an incandescent bulb compared to only 2. mg of mercury to run a CFL for the same time† (Energy Efficient Lighting). Disposing of CFLs is easier than people would like to admit since, â€Å"Burned out CFLs can be dropped off at Home Depot and Ikea stores† (Energy Efficient Lighting). If the mercury in CFL light bulbs is still concerning then people can always switch to LED lights, â€Å"that last five to 10 times as long as CFLs, contain no mercury and use far less energy† (Caplan). If every American home replaced just one light bulb with and ENERGY STAR qualified bulb, we would save enough energy to light more than 3 million homes for a year† (Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs for Consumers). There are many choices for energy efficient light bulbs, some with mercury and some without, but overall all will help save the environment and save people their money. Saving the environment will not only help the lives of people living today, but will help the lives of all the people living for generations to come, so switch to energy efficient light bulbs and help save the world. Works Cited Broughton, Lacy. Discussion Interview. 1 November 2009. Caplan, Jeremy â€Å"Better Bulbs. † Time 174. 4 (2009): 54. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 19 Oct. 2009. â€Å"Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs for Consumers. † Energystar. gov. Energy Star. Web. 15 Nov. 2009. . Dahne, Tom. â€Å"Learn all About Fluorescent Bulbs. † Psychicarticles. co. uk. Psychic Articles, 03 Oct. 2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2009. . â€Å"Energy Efficient Lighting. † Eartheasy. com. Eartheasy. Web. 15 Nov. 2009. . Milton, Carolyn. Discussion Interview. 5 November 2009.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Microorganisms And Bacterial Infects - 943 Words

Many microorganisms such as bacteria play a key role in the health and well-being throughout the world. Some bacteria help human health while others can cause illness and disease. (NIMH). Streptococcal bacterial infections were first marked in history in the late 1800s by Louis Pasteur as the cause for childbirth fever (NCBI ). Strep bacteria are thought to be an ancient organism that hides in the human host as long as possible (NIMH). Eventually the immune system does recognize the molecules of strep as a foreign invader and begins to make antibodies against it After almost a hundred years of streptococcal research, it may have come as a surprise to microbiologists to have a new streptococcal disease discovered and labeled in the 1990s.†¦show more content†¦It is commonly accepted in medicine that it takes about ten years for research findings to trickle down into accepted clinical application. Some doctors prefer to wait until research is more decided before trying differe nt treatments on their patients. Other doctors are more likely to implement the most current treatment options even creating those options themselves based on what they see in the clinic. Traditional and current treatment of acute strep infection is best treated with antibiotics. A strep culture is done to determine if there is a strep infection. Clinicians should be aware of some hidden types of strep that can occur even if the throat culture is negative. Occult or hidden strep infections may include sinus infections, or strep has been found in the anus, vagina or the urethral opening of the penis. (NIHM). 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